The government of the Republic of Azerbaijan is based on the principles of separation of power. In line with the traditional concept of separation of power, the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan determines that the executive power is held by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the legislative power is carried out by the Parliament (Milli Majlis), and the judicial power is held by independent courts, the Constitutional Court being the highest court of Azerbaijan.
The executive power of the Republic of Azerbaijan is held by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The executive branch is made up of the president, his apparatus, a prime minister, and the cabinet of ministers.
The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan is elected for five-year terms by general and direct elections. No person can be elected President of the Azerbaijan Republic more than twice.
The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The President forms a Cabinet of Ministers for the realization of the executive authorities. A Cabinet of Ministers is the superior body of the Executive power of the President; it submits to the President and is accountable before him.
The legislative power of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Milli Majlis consists of 125 members. The members are elected for five-year terms on the basis of a majority system by direct elections. Every citizen of Azerbaijan who has reached the age of 25 can be elected to the Milli Majlis and there are no election term limits.
The Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan is the highest judicial body on matters under the authority allocated to it by the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Constitutional Court is not dependent on legislative and executive organs. The purpose of the Constitutional Court is to provide the supremacy of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan and to protect the rights and the freedoms of everyone.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic is composed of 9 judges appointed by the Milli Mejlis on the nomination of the President. The Constitutional Court is considered authorized with the participation of 7 judges. The judges are appointed for 15-year terms. There is no second term appointment.
The political life of Azerbaijan is characterized by a multiparty system. The political parties have the opportunity to participate in the political life of the country through representation in the legislative and local municipal bodies. 42 political parties have been registered by the state so far.
Article 58 of the Constitution states:
- Every one has a right to unite with others.
- Everyone has a right to join any association including any political party, trade unions and other social unions as well as existing units. The free activity of such associations is ensured.
- No one can make any other person to join or to remain the member of any association.
- The activity of the associations aiming at the forceful overthrow of the legal state power on the whole territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan or its part is prohibited. The activity of the associations violating the Constitution and the Law can be ceased only through the court.